Best DNA Test 2019: Family Tree DNA vs 23andMe vs AncestryDNA vs MyHeritage DNA & More

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Can a little spit really tell you that you’ve got some Albert Einstein in your DNA or that your ancestors migrated from the Middle East 2,000 years ago?

Surely, you’ve heard about the craze over at-home DNA tests by now. Interested in digging deeper into your family heritage? Want to know what test to take? DNA testing is easier and more affordable than you might think and can lead to amazing revelations about who you are.

What can these tests tell you? You can learn about your family’s history going back many generations and find living family matches. They can also help you discover your ethnic origins from around the world. Some can even tell you health conditions you may be at a greater risk of developing. An ancestral DNA test may also inspire you to dig in deeper to your family tree with genealogical research.

Article Overview

2019 Best DNA Test For Ancestry Winners

We chose our best DNA test for 2019 based on a number of factors, including the:

  • Types of tests they offer
  • DNA database size
  • Extent of ancestry information and matching relatives you can find from each test
  • Cost
  • Genealogy research tools

If you need to brush up on DNA and ancestry-related terms, jump to our DNA terminology section.

AncestryDNA Review

#1

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AncestryDNA is part of the wildly popular genealogical company Ancestry.com. This company has really stepped up its game over the last several years, giving you an unparalleled ability to find familial matches as well as a breakdown of your ethnicity from 500+ regions across the globe.

AncestryDNA offers affordable pricing, an extremely active online community, a huge DNA ancestry database of over 10 million people and access to millions of family trees and billions of historical records via the Ancestry website. Their autosomal test analyzes more than 700,000 genetic markers to find your genetic matches.

AncestryDNA also gives you results on migration patterns from several areas around the world to post-colonial North America. This can help you better pinpoint where your recent ancestors lived in the U.S. and migrated from around the world.

Best For Identifying Genetic Matches

Far more people have tested with AncestryDNA than any other service — a whopping 10 million people. This means you’ll be more likely to find living relatives and shared ancestors. You can also use the website’s extensive historical ancestry records to try to trace your ancestors on your mother’s and father’s sides.

Pros

Cons

  • Competitive pricing for autosomal DNA test
  • Largest DNA database by far — 10+ million people
  • Provides ancestry ethnicity estimates for 500 global regions
  • CLIA and CAP certified laboratory (third-party lab)
  • Reliable security for DNA test samples and results
  • Excellent online community forums and customer service
  • Stores your DNA sample indefinitely
  • Can connect with genetic matches via anonymous email and Ancestry.com message boards
  • Discover what your DNA tells you about 26 different physical traits (lactose intolerance, earlobe type, male hair loss, etc.)
  • Doesn’t offer separate Y-DNA or mtDNA testing
  • Can’t upload DNA data from other services
  • No chromosome browser available to compare shared chromosomal segments
  • Those tested must opt-in so that other users can see their results, meaning you may not be able to see all your matches

Pricing

The following pricing is for Ancestry’s DNA test and results, including familial matches. If you want to link your results to your family tree or do other research on their website, you must have a paid subscription. See the latest subscription pricing.

  • $79 Autosomal DNA testing kit (saliva sample)
  • $14.99 AncestryDNA Traits (no additional DNA test needed)
  • $9.95 shipping
  • Results available in 6-8 weeks

Coupon

AncestryDNA often has time-sensitive coupons. Click here to take advantage of any offers.

Read Our In-Depth AncestryDNA Review

Family Tree DNA Review

#2

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Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) is the best DNA ancestry test if you’re committed to serious genealogy research. This company is the only service that offers all three types of tests separately: autosomal, Y-DNA and mtDNA testing. Their Y-DNA and mtDNA tests are much more in-depth than other companies’ maternal and paternal-line analysis. (Learn more about these different tests.)

Also, FTDNA is one of few services that offers a chromosomal browser, which allows you to compare your matching DNA segments (blocks) with each genetic match. You get the email addresses of your matches and can join targeted genealogical projects within their network. This is one of a few services that gives you the ability to transfer your data from other services to help you further your research.

You may have heard about FTDNA’s recent agreement to work with law enforcement to upload genetic files to help identify a perpetrator of a homicide, abduction or sexual assault, or ID the remains of a deceased individual. If this causes privacy concerns for you, FTDNA allows you to opt out of Law Enforcement Matching, so your DNA results on file will not be included in their searches.

Best For Advanced Genealogical Research

FTDNA gives you a list of all your genetic matches who share common ancestors from your maternal and paternal lines from the past 5 or so generations. You can even view, sort and compare individual DNA matches by parental lines and contact matches via email (if they’ve permitted access). Their separate mtDNA and Y-DNA tests give you uniquely specific analysis into your DNA, and their online resources are phenomenal.

Pros

Cons

  • Competitive pricing for DNA autosomal test and frequent promotions
  • Only site to offer separate autosomal DNA and in-depth Y-DNA and mtDNA testing kits and a good variety of bundled packages
  • Provides ethnicity estimates for 24 global regions
  • In-house laboratory certified by CLIA and accredited by CAP
  • Stores your DNA sample for 25 years
  • Strict privacy policy
  • You receive email addresses for your genetic matches
  • Chromosome browser tool to compare shared chromosomal segments
  • Allows uploading of raw DNA results from 23andMe, AncestryDNA, MyHeritage and NatGeo Geno 2.0
  • Excellent online community forums and customer service
  • Database (1+ million people) isn’t quite as extensive as other services

Pricing

FTDNA delivers results in 4-8 weeks. All tests are a cheek swab.

  • $79 Family Finder Autosomal DNA Kit
  • $89 mtDNA Plus DNA Kit
  • $199 mtDNA Full Sequence Kit
  • $169 Y-37 Markers
  • $268 Y-67 Markers
  • $359 Y-111 Markers
  • $649 Big Y-700
  • $9.95 shipping
  • View all options

Coupon

Family Tree DNA often has time-sensitive coupons!

Read Our In-Depth FamilyTreeDNA Review

23andMe Review

#3

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23andMe is your best bet if you want to trace your lineage and get disease-risk and carrier-status DNA results. They offer two testing kit types — an autosomal Ancestry test for $99 or a Health + Ancestry test for $199.

On the ancestry side, you’ll get reports on your ethnic composition, haplogroups and Neanderthal ancestry. 23andMe also provides you an anonymous report of where your current genetic matches live in the world, and you can opt-in to their DNA Relatives tool to find, connect and message those who share DNA with you. If you want to use your DNA results to help you trace your family tree, however, 23andMe’s research tools and genealogy community aren’t up to par with FamilyTreeDNA or Ancestry.com.

23andMe is the only direct-to-consumer genetic test that has FDA approval for 10+ genetic health risks, including late-onset Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Hereditary Thrombophilia and most recently Type 2 Diabetes and three genetic variants found on the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes known to be associated with a higher risk for breast, ovarian and prostate cancer.

Other health results include 40+ FDA-approved carrier status reports (whether you carry genes for certain health conditions), 5 wellness reports (lactose intolerance, for example) and 25 trait reports (male bald spot, unibrow, etc.).

Best For General Ancestry & Disease Risk Screening

If you want to learn where your ancestors lived around the world and, at the same time, gain insights into your health and risk for certain diseases, 23andMe’s Ancestry + Health test is the way to go.

Pros

Cons

  • Only at-home DNA test to offer FDA-approved health screenings
  • Large DNA database of 5+ million people
  • Provides your ethnicity breakdown from 1,000+ global regions
  • CLIA and CAP certified laboratory (third-party lab)
  • Test samples and results are secure for privacy
  • Provides chromosome browser to compare shared chromosomal segments
  • Stores your DNA sample
  • Doesn’t offer separate, in-depth Y-DNA or mtDNA testing
  • No genealogical DNA projects available to join on website
  • Can’t upload raw DNA data from other services
  • Genealogical community forums are lacking compared to our top two choices
  • Users have to opt-in to allow others to even see that they’re a genetic match (members say many don’t, making it more difficult to identify and connect with living relatives)

Pricing

  • $99 Ancestry autosomal DNA test (saliva sample)
  • $199 Ancestry + Health DNA testing kit
  • $9.95 shipping
  • Results available in 6-8 weeks
  • View all options

Coupon

23andMe occasionally has time-sensitive coupons including a Mother's Day sale. Now through May 13th, 23andMe is offering customers in the US (Canada) to receive $30 (C$40) off a Health + Ancestry kit. Click here to take advantage of these limited time deals.

Read Our In-Depth 23andMe Review

DNA Test For Ancestry Comparison Table

 1st: Ancestry DNA2nd: Family Tree DNA3rd: 23andMeAfrican AncestryGPS Origins by HomeDNALiving DNAMyHeritage DNAVitagene
Visit WebsiteVisit WebsiteVisit WebsiteVisit WebsiteVisit WebsiteView on AmazonVisit WebsiteVisit WebsiteVisit Website
Read ReviewRead ReviewRead ReviewRead ReviewRead ReviewRead ReviewRead ReviewRead ReviewRead Review
Test TypeSaliva sampleCheek swabSaliva sampleCheek swabCheek swabCheek swabCheek swabCheek swab
Best ForIdentifying RelativesAdvanced Genealogical Research & Identifying RelativesDisease Risk Screening & Ethnicity EstimatesAncient African AncestryEarly Migratory PatternsAdding DNA to Your Online Family Tree
Database Size10+ Million1+ Million5+ Million30,000+n/an/a1.4+ Millionn/a
Find Familial MatchesCheckmarkCheckmarkCheckmarkCheckmark
Ethnic Geographical Regions500+241,000+n/an/a804225
Price$79$79-$649$99 or $199$299$118.95$99$79$79
Shipping$9.95$9.95$9.95FreeFreeFreeFreeFree
Results In6-8 Weeks4-8 Weeks6-8 Weeks6+ Weeks6 Weeks10-12 Weeks3-4 Weeks4-6 Weeks
Autosomal DNACheckmarkCheckmarkCheckmarkCheckmarkCheckmarkCheckmarkCheckmark
In-depth mtDNACheckmarkMaternal haplogroup results onlyMaternal haplogroup results onlyMaternal haplogroup results onlyMaternal haplogroup results only
In-depth Y-ChromosomeCheckmarkPaternal haplogroup results onlyPaternal haplogroup results onlyPaternal haplogroup results onlyPaternal haplogroup results only

The Rest Of The Pack

These may not be in the top 3, but some may give you insights you may not find in our top winners.

African Ancestry | GPS Origins by HomeDNA | Living DNA | MyHeritage DNA | National Geographic Geno 2.0| Vitagene Health+Ancestry

African Ancestry Review

African Ancestry logo

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African Ancestry was launched in 2003, and since that time, it has partnered with historians, archaeologists, anthropologists and other geneticists to build the largest collection of African lineages in the world, including over 30,000 indigenous African DNA profiles.

This company offers separate mtDNA and Y-DNA tests but no autosomal test. African Ancestry says they can trace your roots back to a specific present-day African country, but that’s a somewhat problematic claim. Given the science they use and the limits of DNA ancestry testing in general, what they can do is determine a likely estimate of broad genetic matches “based on the frequency of identical and closely related haplotypes,” according to their website. They also provide broad results from other continents.

Best DNA Test To Discover Ancient African Roots

Do you want to know which specific area, or perhaps even tribe, in Africa your ancestors hailed from? If you know (or highly suspect) that you are of African descent, African Ancestry traces your African roots from 500 – 2,000 years ago.

Pros

Cons

  • World’s largest database of African lineages
  • Traces your African roots back 2,000 years to specific areas and ethnic groups of origin
  • You can upload your mtDNA and Y-DNA test results from FamilyTreeDNA if you have African ancestry (fee for running your results through their algorithm)
  • Active online community
  • They don’t share your sample or results with third parties
  • They destroy your sample once it’s been tested (good for people concerned with privacy)
  • Very expensive
  • DNA database is too small for entirely accurate results — their website states “Company does not warrant that a Report will be accurate or complete.”
  • Can’t identify unknown living relatives or individual ancestors
  • No information on lab accreditation
  • No sample storage option
  • Few genealogical resources on website

Pricing

  • $299 MatriClan™ Test Kit
  • $299 PatriClan™ Test Kit
  • $680 Family Celebration Package, includes one mtDNA kit, one Y-DNA kit, t-shirts, certificates
  • Free shipping
  • Results available in 6+ weeks
  • View all options

GPS Origins By HomeDNA Review

HomeDNA logo

View on Amazon

GPS Origins test by HomeDNA uses a unique ancestral tracking technique that breaks down your gene pool and family migration patterns. Their in-house and highly-accredited laboratory, DNA Diagnostics Center (DDC), tests 800,000 autosomal genetic markers and analyzes 1,000+ reference populations and 40+ gene pools to tell you where your ancestors moved over hundreds of years starting roughly 1,000 years ago.

Although their GPS Origins test kit is expensive, HomeDNA allows you to upload your results from 23andMe, Ancestry.com, the Family Tree DNA Family Finder or National Geographic Geno 2.0 for HomeDNA’s unique analysis for a $39 fee. HomeDNA also provides special editions of their GPS Origins test.

  • The African Edition autosomal test analyzes 11 African–specific gene pools and ancestry markers from more than 100 African populations. You receive your African ethnicity in percentages and can see your ancestors’ migration routes going as far back as 2,000 years, along with anthropological stories explaining the movement of your DNA over time.
  • The Asian Edition test analyzes 17 Asian gene pools and goes back 2,000 years, with date stamps and geographic coordinates.

Best For Early Migratory Patterns

Want to know where your early ancestors originated from and migrated to over hundreds of years? The GPS Origins tests give you basic migratory patterns within certain areas of the globe starting as early as 2,000 years ago based on your genetically-matched haplogroups.

Pros

Cons

  • Approach and results are unique with GPS Origins test
  • Provides historical write-ups of specific migratory patterns
  • DNA lab is highly accredited
  • Strict privacy policy
  • Special African and Asian GPS Origins editions
  • You can have your raw DNA from other companies analyzed by HomeDNA for $39
  • Charitable support for the Innocence Project
  • Customers report helpful support reps
  • GPS Origins test kit is expensive compared to most other DNA ancestry tests
  • No familial matches — can’t identify living relatives or individual ancestors
  • Separate maternal and paternal line tests are very limited in what they can tell you (unlike FTDNA’s Y-DNA and mtDNA tests)
  • No chromosome browser
  • No information about sample storage on website
  • Website lacks online community and supplemental resources

Pricing

  • $118.95 for GPS Origins® test (cheek swab)
  • $39 to upload your results from the Family Tree DNA Family Finder, 23andMe, Ancestry.com or National Geographic Geno 2.0
  • Results available in 4-6 weeks

Read Our In-Depth HomeDNA Review

Living DNA Review

Living DNA logo

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England-based Living DNA launched in early 2015. At the time, they claimed to be the “first truly global DNA test” because they broke down ancestral origins across 80 worldwide regions. AncestryDNA and 23andMe, however, have put that claim to rest as both sites have seriously improved their regional ethnicity analysis. Living DNA does still have the edge on British ancestry — they break down your roots across 21 specific regions in the British Isles.

If you already have a good idea that your roots are from the United Kingdom, Living DNA could be a great test for you to delve deeper into the region. Living DNA has partnered with several leading genomics, analytical, testing and research organizations, which lends them a lot of credibility in our book. We’re keeping our eye on this relative newcomer to see how their reputation develops.

Best For British Heritage

If you have Brit in your blood, Living DNA is your best choice for DNA testing. Based in the UK, their database is specifically geared toward the European and UK populations, making their results more comprehensive in those regions.

Pros

Cons

  • Excellent for a more in-depth British regional breakdown (80 regions alone in Britain)
  • Traces your maternal and paternal lines back and gives you your haplogroups
  • Good security and privacy policy
  • Gives you raw DNA results that you can upload to some other sites like GEDMatch
  • Shipping of kit (and return shipping) included in price
  • Doesn’t have its own database, so you can’t compare your results to others who’ve tested or find familial matches (but they recently launched a public beta version of family matching)
  • Lab is located in the UK, which doesn’t hold the same certification standards as in the U.S.
  • Can’t upload raw DNA data from other services
  • No chromosome browser
  • Very limited website resources, tools or community
  • No information on website about long-term DNA sample storage

Pricing

  • $99 DNA testing kit (cheek swab)
  • Free shipping
  • Results in 10-12 weeks

Coupon

Living DNA occasionally has time-sensitive coupons.  To celebrate Summer get $20 off DNA tests - only $79 (regularly $99) now through 7/31/2019. Use this link to save (no code needed).

Read Our In-Depth Living DNA Review

MyHeritage DNA Review

MyHeritage DNA logo

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MyHeritage is one of the most popular genealogy research and family tree websites in the world. In September 2016, they launched an autosomal DNA ancestry test at a competitive price. This DNA heritage test is similar to AncestryDNA, with fewer ethnic regions identified.

Although the test is relatively new compared to the top 3 services, their database has grown to 1.4+ million people, and they use FTDNA’s highly-accredited testing lab. An advantage of MyHeritage DNA? You can import DNA testing results from competing companies to compare with their database for free. Most other services (except FTDNA) either don’t give you this option or charge you a fee.

Best For Enhancing Your Online Family Tree

With more than 3.3 billion people in family trees and 103+ billion users worldwide, MyHeritage’s Family Tree Builder and related services are among the best online. How do you benefit from connecting your DNA to your family tree? DNA results can prove or disprove documented family tree connections. Family trees are also vital for understanding the relationship path to DNA matches.

Pros

Cons

  • Competitive pricing for autosomal DNA test
  • DNA database of 1.4+ million people
  • Provides ancestry ethnicity estimates for 42 global regions
  • CLIA and CAP certified laboratory (they use FTDNA’s lab)
  • Reliable security for DNA test samples and results
  • Can import raw DNA data from any service that uses GEDCOM or autosomal test
  • New chromosome browser
  • They store your DNA sample indefinitely, or you can request to have it destroyed
  • Good online community forums and customer service
  • Additional fee to use their family tree and genealogical services
  • No separate Y-DNA or mtDNA testing
  • Doesn’t offer targeted genealogical DNA projects available to join on website

Pricing

  • $79 Autosomal DNA testing kit (cheek swab)
  • Free shipping
  • Results in 3-4 weeks

Read Our In-Depth MyHeritage DNA Review

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Review

National Geographic Genographic project logo

Geno 2.0 DNA Ancestry kits are no longer available for purchase since  the public participation phase of the National Geographic Genographic project ended in late May 2019. According to their website, if you already purchased a kit, you may still send it in for processing “in accordance with the Terms and Conditions of sale.” They also say that customers will still be able to access their test results online until the end of 2020.

Vitagene Health+Ancestry Review

Vitagene Health+Ancestry logo

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Vitagene Health + Ancestry by HomeDNA is a combined autosomal DNA test that analyzes your ethnic ancestry and several health traits from one single cheek swab. Its approach is similar to AncestryDNA’s test but with noticeable limitations.

There isn’t much to get excited about with Vitagene’s test. Their ancestry analysis only gives you ethnicity results for 25 regions around the world with percentage breakdowns — you can get these results and more (e.g., familial matches) from AncestryDNA, 23andMe and other ancestry tests.

Vigagene also looks at specific genes related to vitamin deficiencies and common sensitivities, like gluten or lactose intolerance, as well as several other physical and wellness traits (AncestryDNA’s test now does this, too). Finally, there’s an online questionnaire, where you provide secure and confidential information about your medical history and lifestyle.

They claim they can then use the results of their DNA test and your medical history to develop a personalized plan for exercise, diet and supplement recommendations. But here’s where there’s a problem — they take the results too far. No published scientific studies show that genetic tests can give you useful and actionable information about boosting your wellness through diet and exercise solely based on your genetic profile. 

Pros

Cons

  • Ethnicity breakdown across 25 global regions
  • DNA lab is highly accredited (same lab as GPS Origins)
  • Strict privacy policy and they destroy your sample once it’s tested
  • You can have your raw DNA from other companies analyzed for $49
  • Quicker results than many other companies
  • Good online resources
  • Customers report helpful support reps
  • No familial matches — can’t identify living relatives or individual ancestors
  • Doesn’t offer separate mtDNA or Y-DNA tests (can’t learn about maternal or paternal lines)
  • Website lacks online community

Pricing

  • Health Report + Ancestry: $79
  • Premium Report: $99
  • Vitality Bundle + Free DNA Test: $209
  • View all options
  • Free shipping
  • Results in 4-6 weeks

Vitagene occasionally has time-sensitive coupons including a DNA Day sale. Now through April 26th Vitagene is offering customers 20% off. Click here to take advantage of this limited time deal.

Read Our In-Depth Vitagene Review

Take An Ancestry Tour To Your Heartland

Go Ahead Tours logo

Visit Go Ahead Tours

EF Go Ahead Tours, in partnership with Ancestry.com, is now offering special Ancestry Tours where you can uncover your family story on one-of-a-kind genealogy tours to six different regions in Europe, including Germany, Scotland, two in Ireland and two in Italy.

Each trip includes an AncestryDNA kit and pre-trip family history review. Then, when you’re at your destination, an Ancestry genealogist will accompany your tour group to answer questions about your heritage. EF Go Ahead Tours offers travel planning, handpicked hotels, authentic cuisine, guided sightseeing and an expert tour director in all of its tour packages.

EF Go Ahead Tours’ all-inclusive ancestry trips are from 10-14 days and start at approximately $3,300 per person.

Coupon

Go Ahead Tours offers $200 off your first trip with them just by signing up for their email list! Click here to get started.

Other Types Of At-Home DNA Tests

DNA Paternity Test

Historically one of the more common types of DNA tests, a paternity test determines the biological link between a father and child. There’s even a non-invasive prenatal paternity test available now. Read our Paternity Test Comparison for the scoop.

DNA Health Testing

At-home DNA testing for most medical and health-related purposes is still in its infancy, but scientists are making advances every day. It’s always a good idea to talk with your physician and/or a genetic counselor before deciding whether to test yourself. A counselor can also help you decipher the results.

Check out our article on DNA Testing For Health Reasons to see which at-home tests are legit.

Note: Keep in mind, these tests analyze your genetic makeup to see if you’ve inherited genes that could make you more likely to develop a certain condition. But they can’t predict whether you’ll actually get that disease (or even your chances of getting it).

Genetic Testing For Cancer Risk

Some people have a higher risk of developing specific types of cancers that tend to run in the family. In these cases, a physician may test your DNA to look for gene mutations that could indicate a higher risk. One of the better-known examples is testing for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (breast cancer genes) in women whose mother and sister have had breast cancer.

Genetic Testing For Carrier Status

Want to start a family, but you’re worried you may pass on an unwanted risk to your child? Some DNA tests can tell you if you’re a carrier for certain inherited conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia or hereditary hearing loss. A positive match doesn’t mean your child will inherit the condition; it just lets you know whether you carry the gene.

Not all DNA tests are the same. A carrier status DNA test, for example, focuses on the specific markers known to be associated with certain inherited conditions. On the other hand, DNA genealogy tests focus on specific markers related to our ancestry.

Pet DNA Testing

Why should your pets be left out of the family tree fun? You can now test dog DNA with Embark, a top-rated company that can help you find your dog’s breed makeup and identify many health markers. Your cat can get in on the genealogical action too, with the reputable cat DNA company, Basepaws.

Statistics & Facts About DNA Tests

Here are some recent stats and fun facts related to DNA and its growing popularity.

  • As of early 2019, more than 26 million consumers have taken DNA tests with commercial DNA kits.1
  • More people took DNA tests in 2018 than all previous years combined. 1
  • If DNA test trends continue, there could be 100 million people’s genetic info in commercial databases by 2021.1
  • Privacy is the #1 concern people have about DNA tests. 2
  • 40% of surveyed travelers reported that they want to take, or have taken, a trip inspired by their DNA test results. 3
  • A California-based travel agency Authentic Vacations booked $1.5 million in Ancestry tours in 2018 (nearly double compared to 2017).3
  • Music sharing service Spotify has teamed up with Ancestry to provide musical DNA playlists inspired by your test results. Since launching in September 2018, more than 10,000 people have signed up for a custom playlist.4
  • According to Google Trends, West Virginia, Maryland, Massachusetts and Vermont are the states most interested in DNA kits in the past 5 years (since April 2014). 5

How Does At-Home DNA Testing Work?

Order Your Kit graphic Step 1: Order Your Kit

Order your kit online from anywhere in the world. It takes about a week to receive the kit. The package should arrive sealed, so you are certain it has not been tampered with.

Set Up Online Profile graphic Step 2: Set Up Your Online Profile

You’ll need to activate your kit online using a unique code provided to you. This connects your name and contact details to your sample so you can track progress as it’s tested and later view results. You’ll most likely sign a consent form and agree to the company’s legal terms and conditions before getting started.

Provide DNA Sample graphicStep 3: Provide A DNA Sample

Now for the fun part — providing your DNA sample! Most tests offer cheek swab tests. AncestryDNA, 23andMe and NatGeo Geno 2.0 tests require you to spit in a vial.

Either way, they recommend not eating, drinking, smoking, chewing gum or teeth brushing at least one hour before to ensure a good sample. Also, wash your hands before opening the test tubes to ensure a clean sample.

Seal & Ship graphic Step 4: Seal & Ship Your Sample

Once your samples are complete and ready to go, seal the samples in the specimen bag, place them in the provided mailing envelope and drop it in your mailbox for delivery. Don’t forget to make sure your unique ID is on each sample, so the labs have a way to track it back to your profile.

Step 5: Wait For Analysis

Wait For Analysis graphic

In an age where we can get most things instantly, you might be anxious to get results right away. But, how long does a DNA test take to come back? Given the complexity of the process of analyzing your DNA and comparing your results to other samples, expect to wait anywhere from 4-10 weeks depending on the company.

Step 6: View & Share Your Results

View & Share Your Results graphicTo access your results, sign in to the online portal using the login you created when you activated your kit (results will not be mailed to you for privacy reasons). Once logged in, you can view and analyze your DNA in more detail using the provided percentages, maps and more depending on which kit you chose.

Types Of DNA Tests For Ancestry: Autosomal, mtDNA & Y-DNA

Now that you have a better understanding of the scientific part let’s define the various types of tests, what to look for and who can take each one. It’s important to do your research about the kind of test to make sure you’re testing your DNA for the specific information you’re looking for.

Autosomal DNA Test

Autosomal DNA Test relationship graphic Autosomal DNA tests look at chromosomes 1-22 that you’ve inherited from both your parents. Don’t know much about your grandparents or other relatives? Autosomal DNA testing can determine how closely related you are to other individuals.

  • Who Can Take The Test: Males and females.
  • What It Tests For: Autosomal DNA testing matches you with other individuals based on a certain amount of shared DNA.
  • What It Can Reveal: You can expect to find matches as far out as 5th cousins and in some cases even further. Tests analyze shared DNA and give you your matches as well as how much DNA you have in common. Autosomal tests also give you estimates of your ethnic origins from around the world.
  • How Far Back Are Results: Autosomal DNA tests trace back anywhere from 5 to 10 generations on both your mother’s and father’s sides of the family.

What Are Ethnicity Estimates?

Autosomal DNA tests match your DNA with population samples and studies from across the globe. When you get your DNA test results back, you’ll get a report that gives you a mixture of percentages (ethnicity estimates). These are your unique percentages of where your ancestors lived in defined geographical regions, i.e., 82% British Isles, 10% Eastern European, 2% Native American and so on.

Note: Each company’s ethnicity report differs by their defined global regions, how they present their data to you and the number of population studies they use in their analysis. Your percentages can also differ because of each lab’s unique testing methods. Some autosomal tests also look at parts of your DNA going back even further.

mtDNA Test

Mitochondrial DNA Test relationship graphicA mitochondrial (mtDNA) test traces your mother-line ancestry using the DNA in your mitochondria. mtDNA is passed down unchanged by every mother to all her children, both male and female.

  • Who Can Take The Test: Males and females.
  • What It Tests For: mtDNA tests along the direct maternal line, examining genetic markers on your mtDNA, which is passed down from mother to child each generation.
  • What It Can Reveal: Your direct maternal deep ancestry and which haplogroup you belong to.
  • How Far Back Are Results: All humans descended from Mitochondrial Eve, who lived an estimated 200,000 years ago in Africa. Her descendants are organized into different branches called haplogroups.

Y-DNA Test

Y Chromosome DNA Testing relationship graphicThe Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) test traces direct male-line ancestry — grandfather to father to son and so on. The Y-chromosome passes down each generation virtually unchanged. Since females don’t carry the Y-chromosome, they can’t take this test. Females, however, can learn something from this test by having a brother, father, paternal grandfather, paternal uncle or a male cousin (your father’s brother’s son) take a test for you.

  • Who Can Take The Test: Males only (because women don’t have a Y-chromosome).
  • What It Tests For: The Y-DNA test traces direct male-line ancestry. Each male’s Y-DNA test results are compared to other males’ results to find out their most recent common ancestor (MRCA) in their direct patrilineal lines.
  • What It Can Reveal: This test can tell you which Y-haplogroup you belong to if you’re male. Your Y-DNA haplogroup reflects the ancient ancestry of your paternal line.
  • How Far Back Are Results: Like mtDNA tests, Y-DNA tests can go back hundreds of thousands of years.

Other Terminology & FAQs

What Is DNA?

DNA graphic DNA stands for “deoxyribonucleic acid,” and everyone’s DNA is unique to the individual. More than 99% of your DNA is the same as everyone else’s in the world. But there are small groups of sections across each person’s genome that differ (these variations make you the unique person you are).

What Is A DNA Test?

DNA analysis looks at small sections of DNA, called “markers,” to create your DNA profile —  a unique genetic fingerprint. Not every DNA test, however, is the same, and not every test’s design finds the same information from your DNA.

What Are Genetic Markers?

A genetic marker is a DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome. Scientists use genetic markers to identify cells, individuals, populations, etc.

What Does Autosomal Mean?

Autosomal refers to a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome. People have 22 pairs of autosomes in each cell, as well as 2 sex chromosomes (X & Y in a male and X & X in a female).

What Is Shared DNA?

Two people who share identical segments of DNA share a recent common ancestor. The relationship between relatives (siblings, cousins, etc.) depends on the length and number of these identical segments.

What Is Deep Ancestry?

Deep ancestry is based on either mitochondrial (maternal) DNA or Y-chromosome (paternal) DNA, and it shows a single line of descent. It’s often referred to as a direct maternal line or direct paternal line, going back hundreds to thousands of years.

What Does Haplogroup Mean?

A haplogroup is a genetic population (group of people) who share a common ancestor on the direct paternal or maternal line.

What Is Y-Haplogroup, E3a, Q3, Etc.?

Each haplogroup is assigned its own group “name,” which consists of a letter of the alphabet followed by more specific refinements indicated by additional number and letter combinations. Some haplogroups indicate clear ethnic groups. For example, the Y-haplogroup E3a is the most common among African Americans, and Y-haplogroup Q3 solely includes Native American populations.

How Accurate Is DNA Testing For Ancestry?

DNA testing for forensic purposes, paternity and ancestry are 99.9% accurate. This DNA accuracy level for ancestry pertains to matching relatives, not for ethnicity results.

What About DNA Testing Privacy?

Are my DNA sample and results protected? We see this question often. What do companies do with your results and private information? The best testing sites don’t share your DNA results with insurance companies or other third parties. We recommend you read each company’s privacy policy before ordering a test if you’re concerned about your results ending up in the wrong hands.

In 2008, the U.S. passed the Genetic Information and Non-Discrimination Act to protect citizens from having their genetic information used against them for health insurance or employment purposes.

Do My Parents Or Siblings Need To Take A DNA Test For My Results To Be Accurate?

It depends on what type of information you’re looking for. It’s not necessary if you just want general ethnicity results. An autosomal DNA test will tell you what’s been passed down through your mother and/or father’s blood line, so save yourself the money!

But keep in mind, each person inherits different percentages of each parent’s DNA, and every person is different (even twins!). So, if you want the most complete results, everyone in the family should test.

Why Did My Sibling (& Even My Twin) Get Different Results From Mine?

Every person gets half of their DNA from their mother and half from their father. But what ends up in each half differs for each sibling. For example, you could’ve inherited more of your mother’s Asian DNA, and your brother got more of your mother’s European DNA. The same goes for the DNA you inherit from your father.

Can DNA Tests Tell Me What Countries My Ancestors Lived In?

In most cases no, although some (like AncestryDNA and 23andMe) will break them down to very specific regions. Be wary of these specific breakdowns because they’re typically based on very small population samples, so the results aren’t representative of a large enough population sample to make them highly valid (see below for more detailed info).

How Accurate Are DNA Ethnicity Tests?

DNA ethnicity results are the least reliable part of DNA tests, but the science behind this testing is improving. AncestryDNA and 23andMe have recently dramatically expanded the number of global regions they identify in your ethnic mix, but drilling down to specific countries is complicated and problematic. Why? There are two major reasons:

  1. Each company that offers ethnicity tests uses groups of reference populations to compare your results and place you in an ethnic group. Results, however, can vary widely based on which and how many of these reference populations a certain company uses.
  2. Over the course of hundreds and thousands of years, there has been a great deal of intermixing of populations, particularly in Europe. Let’s use warfare as a good example. Wars cause invasions, which in turn change country borders and cause the mixing of disparate populations. Refugees migrated to different parts of their continent, further mixing people of different ethnic regions.

Because of these factors, you can see why your ethnicity results are just estimates. The better testing companies, however, give you confidence levels for each of your ethnic percentage results, so you get a better idea of how “accurate” your results are.

How Accurate Is DNA Testing For Health Reasons?

The lines are a bit more blurry when it comes to DNA testing for disease risk (i.e., health).

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other federal organizations want the public to be aware that many companies are prematurely marketing genetic tests for disease risk with limited scientific backing. Many of these tests may not provide valid or useful results. Why? Researchers have yet to identify a large part of the genetic makeup with most diseases.

23andMe, however, is one company that has received FDA approval for a few of its health-related DNA tests. You can discover your genetic disease risk for certain cancers, Parkinson’s Disease, Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease, Celiac Disease and other hereditary conditions. Learn more in our article about 23andMe and other DNA tests for health reasons.

Don’t Miss GEDmatch On Your DNA Quest

GEDmatch.com is a free website, where you can upload raw autosomal DNA results and your match lists from AncestryDNA, 23andMe, Family Tree DNA and other services. In GEDmatch you can compare your DNA results with the results of all other GEDmatch users who’ve made their results public, regardless of what company they used to obtain autosomal DNA results. GEDmatch can help you:

  • Identify cousins and share research efforts for matching relatives.
  • Identify what portions of your DNA came from each parent if you and one (or both) of your parents have their DNA tested.
  • Potentially get more detailed ethnicity breakdowns. GEDmatch has 6 different options for displaying more detailed ethnicity, with many breakdowns under each option.

How Does GEDmatch Protect Your Privacy?

GEDmatch requires you to provide your email address and the exact name you used with your testing company. While we don’t recommend that you make your name or any of your information public, not sharing will limit much of what you can do with the website.

DNA Test Myths vs Facts

Still a bit confused? This short video breaks down the DNA tests in a nutshell for you.

DNA 101 Infographic

Infographic: DNA Tests

To share this DNA heritage test infographic on your site, simply copy and paste the code below:

Learn More About Our Human History And How You Fit In

Whether you’re searching for living relatives or want to know where your ancestors originated, a DNA ancestry test is a fun way to find out more about what made you who you are. If you’re not already researching genealogy online, you may want to check out our Best Online Genealogy Software comparison article for our recommendations.

Check out our At-Home Paternity Test Review to learn more about legal paternity tests, prenatal paternity tests, a host of relationship tests (sibling, grandparent, maternity, etc.) and more. You’ll find features, pricing and pros and cons.

We tried to answer all your questions but if there’s something we neglected to cover, feel free to ask us below in the comments.

What do you hope to discover via DNA testing?

Sources: International Society of Genetic Genealogy, [1] MIT Technology Review, [2] Mashable, [3] New York Times, [4] Quartz , [5] Google Trends (2014-2019)

About The Author:

An international traveler since she was under 10 years old, Sally loves exploring the world’s mysteries first hand. Her favorite destinations? Greece and the British Virgin Islands. She grew up learning to question, explore, and discover new things and ideas — it’s probably why she went into journalism as a career! She loves what the Internet has brought to research and exploration, but she still hits the ground to travel whenever she gets the chance.

Disclaimer: The information provided through this website should not be used for diagnosing or treating a health problem or a disease. It is not a substitute for professional care. If you have or suspect you may have a health problem, you should consult your health care provider.
We are a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for us to earn fees by linking to Amazon.com and affiliated sites.

Disclaimer: This website contains reviews, opinions and information regarding products and services manufactured or provided by third parties. We are not responsible in any way for such products and services, and nothing contained here should be construed as a guarantee of the functionality, utility, safety or reliability of any product or services reviewed or discussed. Please follow the directions provided by the manufacturer or service provider when using any product or service reviewed or discussed on this website.

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Hazel Kaplan
Hello Sally:

I hope you keep this site active for many years because it is the best information source for its kind.

I have a problem and am very upset about the DNA test I have taken from AncestryDNA:

Example 1: It shows that I am 48% from Caucasia, but there are 50 Ethnic Groups in Caucasia: Armenians are completely different than Georgians, which one I am from?

Example 2: It shows that I am 36% from Persia, but Persia also included in Caucasia, and it also has many different Ethnic Groups.

Example 3: This is also very interesting to me: Although it is not shown that I have any connection with Greece, 98% of my 4th Cousins are Greeks…:)

I am willing to take another test, of course with another company, if you could advise me one, please. I really, really have to know who I am…:)

Thank you for your time and efforts,

Hazel

Diana Hires
You have, in the costs for Ancestry failed to mention the cost of a smiannual or annual membership for Ancestry. You cannot use any of the research features unless you purchase the membership. They are encouraging purchase kits for additional relatives but each relative has to purchase a membership and enter a from scratch family tree in order to get full benefits of the software. Perhaps they will be encouraged to fix this problem in future. Comments on the internet at BBB (Better Business Bureau) and Yahoo! indicate that Ancestry has a problem with their automatic renewal where people state that Ancestry makes it hard or impossible to opt out of a renewal and that customer service is poor. As a subscriber for over ten years, I believe the posters since I have had problems with auto renewal and management of additional DNA accounts. While Ancestry may be the best choice for avid genealogists, it is pricey unless discounted, difficult for beginning genealogists and hard to reach when there is a problem. This begs the question “Are you sponsored or affiliated with Ancestry?”
KATHRINE
Hello I would like to know which DNA test would confirm my relatives from TUDOR times cousins with ANNE BOLYEN, MARY BOLYEN, KATHERINE HOWARD. MARY STEUWART, AND ALL THE WAY BACK TO EDWARD LONGSHANKS, MY FAMILY NAME HOWARD. I JUST PURCHASED 23 AND ME. VERY KINDLY
Patricia
Hi Sally,
I have already done 23andMe. I like it a lot and I am learning more every time I explore results or my 1000+ living DNA relatives. My one issue is that it combines all UK and Irish descent into one statistic. I would like to find out my percentage breakdowns of Irish, Scottish, and English heritage. Is there another site that identifies these more specifically?
Kathleen Cole
Sally,
Thank you for all the information, but it’s all a bit overwhelming. I have a written family tree, for the most part, and some previous ancestors researched some members of my family all the way back to the 1100’s. But there are still a lot of gaps. I’m not that interested in finding family members, but I AM interested in finding where in Europe most of my ancestors came from (I know I am Dutch and German, but what else?) There is also a bit question if my father’s family has Native American in it; according to family “legend”, we are Choctaw and Comanche. I realize these DNA test kits can’t break down individual tribes, but which kit would be the best for 1) finding out exactly where all in Europe all my ancestors come from, and; 2) am I part Native American? thank you so much!
NauvooMom
Need clarification on number in the databases – your chart comparing the companies has different numbers than the text
Sadie Cornelius (Admin)
Sorry for the confusion it should be correct now!
Kimberly Alt (Admin)
Sally, for Mother’s Day we’re wanting to get my mother-in-law an ancestry test. We plan on going with FTDNA but they offer tons of tests. Do you recommend one over the other?
Cathy Grigsby
Hello,
I have been raising my grand daughter basically her entire life. She will be 18 this year. Her mother has left her with me. I told her she loves you so much she knew you would be safer with me.
Her mother will not give us any information about her father or does not know. Her mom has married twice, divorced twice, has a 1/2 brother, and now has taken off again to another state to live with another man.
Which of the services would be the best one to use? Considering, we not only want her heritage and medical information, we also hopefully someday will meet the rest of her family.
This will be my birthday gift to her this year. I can’t imagine any better gift this kid deserves. No one should feel unwanted.
Thanks,
Cathy Grigsby
Grandma
Mercedes J Pena
Ms Jones, based on your article I would need to take the Ancestry test to find family, 23 & me to get more in-depth health info, National Geographic to find migration patterns/halogroup, & I can share my Ancestry results with Family tree but I would still have to take their mt test to have “full” access & accuracy on their site. Plus, their mt is more “in-depth” than anyone else. Is all this right? I am mid-30’s Puerto Rican female born in NYC. Currently live in the Southern US/Central time zone. I want to find family, get health info, know what areas ancestors may have lived/came from, & if I can trace my roots back to “Eve.” I watch “Who do you think you are?” & “Finding your roots.” One actress could trace her family line back to “Eve” = Noah’s Ark, not Adam & Eve. Also, my significant other is interested in doing this too. He is young-30’s male from California. Since male, he would do y test, not mt. His father is supposed to be: Irish/Italian. His mother is mixed with White/Japanese/Mexican. Her mother, his maternal grandmother is: 100% Japanese but married an American who was part Mexican. So, we both want to know EVERYTHING but don’t want to take every test available if it’s redundant, like testing the same thing, or can be shared/transferred with other company testing websites. Please advise if I’ve understood correctly & narrowed it down to the 4 swab/saliva tests we should purchase. Thank you!
Pat
I know who my mother was but not my biological father (I am female). There are are no KNOWN siblings. I have a half brother on my mothers side. Is there any dna test to give me information on my biological father?
Tammy James
Hello, I am interested in finding out our ancestry for 8 people in my family, then I would like to do the dna health for 3 of us (23 and me). Should we do them all from the same company for better accuracy? Also, we are of middle east decent/Europe/poss native American, which test would you recommend. Would the 23 and me be accurate and give us enough information?
Thanks,
Tammy
Julia
Will you be reviewing the Africanancestry.com site anytime soon?
Daniella R
I have a general question in regards to DNA testing – I’ve noticed that all these genetic test products have flooded the market in the past decade. What scientific progress has suddenly made all this possible – was it the sequencing of the human genome?
Alex Schenker (Admin)
Hi Daniella! I’m answering this on behalf of Sally, here’s her response:

You are correct! Scientists have made a lot of progress in sequencing the human genome through the Human Genome Project and other research over the last decade. What they’ve discovered makes DNA testing more accurate than ever before — and more discoveries are made every day!

Jane M
Thanks for this comprehensive DNA test review Sally, I am very curious to know my ethnicity since I have darker skin and am adopted. Will be so nice to have some answers now that I’ve wondered about for so long!
Corey D Shaw
Hi. I purchased the National Geographic Geno2.0 (Helix). When trying to transfer the kit into the FamilyTreeDNA website, it showed a notice that it was not accepting transfers from Helix. It appears that the U.S. is left out of this partnership deal, because it uses Helix to do the DNA testing. Does anyone know if this is temporary or if I can upload the raw data into FamilyTreeDNA?
Monica Deel
Hi! I was hoping you might help. Both of my parents are living and I want to test both their DNA before mine. My Dad side has deep American Indian heritage. Based on my research I want to do FTDNA for both of my parents. Should I have my Dad do both FTDNA Y-DNA and MT-DNA since his Indian is on his mother’s side (my Grandmother) and have my Mother do just the MT-DNA?

In the future I want to test myself and my husband. Should we plan to test the same way? FTDNA Y-DNA and MT-DNA for my husband and just MT-DNA for me?

I would like to feel confident before ordering all these very expensive tests.

Thank you, Monica

Steve M.
I have twin grandsons from a failed relationship of my daughters. I have been trying to trace their paternal genealogy, but their father and paternal grandfather are unwilling to provide me with any family information. Which dna test would give me the best results to trace the boys family tree without their help?
Margaret Ann Dunn Jones
Hi Sally,
I have hit two brick walls in my family research. My paternal wall stops at the second generation. My maternal wall stops at the third generation. What DNA test do you believe might be beneficial to my efforts?
Thank you for your time.
George W. Jones, III
Hello Sally,
I have traced my maternal side of “the tree” over 30 generations. However, I am stuck at three generations of my paternal “Jones” side of the tree. Might you offer your opinion as to the best DNA program to follow?
Respectfully yours.
Pat Nelson
From what my mother remembered and what a cousin found doing genealogy half a century ago, I am mostly descended from all the British Isles. One outlier comes from my maternal grandmother who said that her grandmother had been a slave who was freed by her grandfather when he returned from the Civil War. The grandmother had died in childbirth delivering my grandmother’s mother. I would very much like to know as much about my ancestry as possible, but I have no living paternal relatives. I do, however, have a son whose father was second-generation Swedish.
With all that possible mixture, what would be the best testing company? And would having my son also tested be helpful?
Tammy
Sally,
I did the Ancestry dna test and was highly disappointed and frustrated. My paternal grandfather was 100% Cherokee and not a single drop of Indian showed up in my test. I contacted Ancestry about it and they said that even though I have it in me, it doesn’t always show up on the test. They tried explaining it to me in a way of if your dad has green eyes that doesn’t mean your eyes will be green. Which doesn’t really make sense to me. DNA is DNA, so I don’t get why it doesn’t show up. I kind of said to my mom in a half joking way that if she had an “affair with the milkman”, now would be the time to tell me. Of course nothing like that is really true, but it makes me wonder…..I have also been in contact with a cousin on my dad’s said, and she said her daughter took the same test and got the same results I did. My grandfather is listed on the Dawes rolls also. I don’t know if you have an explanation for me. I feel like I was conned out of money for a test that obviously not 100% accurate. But I was wondering if I did another company’s test, would I get the same results? I wanted to try the 23andme for the health aspect of it too. Any advice?
Julia
You are not alone. There are not enough dna samples of native americans in any companies data base to give you a result of any accuracy.
Dot
Hi Sally, Which ancestry dna testing company(s) might have a large sample size (and perhaps better accuracy) for estimating Native American percentage that you might recommend? I took the AncestryDNA and was overall pleased with results, but felt the Native American results should have included my Asian percentage. Thanks for the great article and suggestions!
Dawn
Hi Sally,
thank-you for all of the information. there is a lot to choose from. From what I know I have both English/Scottish and Eastern European/Ukrainian in me. My husband swears he is of Viking Blood and has English/Scottish in him. Any thoughts on what would be the best tests? Thank-you.
Dennis
I am so glad you shared the best ancestry tests of 2017. It’s something that I always wanted to find out and now seems the best time to do it. The data centers must be so filled with tons of genome information. I would to learn more about human history and genealogy in general.
Lesley
I am wondering which test kit is most appropriate for someone wanting to investigate their English/Scottish/Norwegian heritage?